Brazil

Brazil

Brazil has, in recent years, made significant progress in various aspects relating to the issue of legality along the wood production and marketing chains. These advances are mainly due to the democratic processes of discussion, participation and building initiatives among various segments of society, including government agencies, industry representatives, environmental organizations and social movements, research centers, etc.. The computerized control systems, evolving towards increased transparency and access by stakeholders, represent a vanguard to be reviewed and considered for adoption by other countries. Also, the Brazilian focus on aspects of the legality of labor issues is another example to be followed in the debates and guidelines FLEGT and EUTR.

1. General characteristics of forests

Brazil is a country with approximately 516.8 million hectares (60.7% of its territory) of natural and planted forests – which represents the second largest forest area in the world, after Russia. According to estimates of forest cover taken by the Brazilian Forest Service (In Portuguese), in 2012 Brazil has 516,586,045 acres of forests, being 509,803,545 hectares of native forest and 7,005,125 hectares of planted forests.

See the thematic vegetation map: Mapa de Vegetação e Recursos Florísticos  do IBGE.

Mapa temático de Vegetação

Thematic Vegetation Map

According to the “Brazilian Institute of geography and stadistics” (IBGE is the Brazilian acronym) a Biome is a set of living organisms (plant and animal) made up of vegetation grouping of contiguous and identifyable regional vegetation types, with similar geo-climatic conditions and shared history of changes, resulting in a biological diversity itself. Brazil is home six continental biomes:

• Amazon
• Cerrado
• Atlantic
• Caatinga
• Pampa
• Pantanal

Biome

Approximate area (km²)

% Brazil

Amazon

4.196.943

49,29

Cerrado

2.036.448

23,92

Atlantic

1.110.182

13,04

Caatinga

844.453

9,92

Pampa

176.496

2,07

Pantanal

150.355

1,76

Total

8.514.877

100

Area of Biomes found in Brazil

Map of the Brazilian biomes:

mapadebrazil

Deforestation

The monitoring of forest cover loss in the Brazilian biomes has been made ​​using satellite images. These images are provided by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). For the Amazon Biome INPE has four operating systems: Program for Calculation of Deforestation in the Amazon (PRODES)System of Deforestation Detection in Real Time (DETER); Mapping Forest Degradation In The Brazilian Amazon (DEGRAD) and DETEX. These systems are complementary and are designed to meet different objectives. For the Atlantic Forest biome NGO SOS Mata Atlântica, in partnership with INPE, accomplished through images of CBERS and Landsat satellites, monitoring deforestation in the Atlantic Forest for the periods 2005-2008 and 2008-2010. As for other biomes, the Center for Remote Sensing of IBAMA – CSR under the Programme Monitoring Deforestation in the Brazilian Biomes satellite, the Ministry of Environment has been conducting monitoring in order to quantify deforestation of native vegetation and to base enforcement actions and combat illegal deforestation in those biomes.

Here’s some information about the loss of forest cover in each biome.

Amazon

The Brazilian government is monitoring forest cover in the Amazon by satellites. This is being conducted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has four operating systems: PRODES, DETER, DEGRAD and DETEX. These systems are complementary and are designed to meet different objectives.

PRODES

The Program for Calculation of Deforestation in the Amazon (PRODES) measures, by using LANDSAT images, the annual rates of clearcutting in the Amazon between August and July each year since 1988, looking at deforested areas greater than 6.25 hectares.

barchart

Annual rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES).

Source: INPE (2012).

To learn more about Prodes go to: http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/

DETER

The System of Deforestation Detection in Real Time (DETER), developed by INPE in 2004, uses data from the MODIS Terra satellite / Aqua Sensor WFI and CBERS satellite, to disseminate a monthly alert map of areas greater than 25 hectares, which indicate both completely deforested areas (clearcut) as well as areas undergoing deforestation by gradual forest degradation.

Average monthly rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (DETER).

barchart2

To learn more about the DETER visit: http://www.obt.inpe.br/deter/index.htm

DEGRAD

The DEGRAD System, developed by INPE in 2007, uses satellite images from LANDSAT and CBERS to map areas in the process of deforestation every year, where the forest cover is not completely removed and therefore not counted by the system PRODES. The DEGRAD mapped forest degradation in the Amazon region for the years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. In 2007, 15,987.10 km ² mapped as degraded forest area. Of these, 1982 km ² were converted to clearcutting in 2008, and thus accounted for Prodes. That same year, 27,417.10 km ² area were mapped as degraded forest. Already in 2009, were mapped 13,301 km ² of degraded forest and in 2010 this was reduced to 7508 km.

State

2007

2008

2009

2010

Acre

123

121

31

76

Amazonas

258

412

181

459

Amapá

50

63

61

20

Maranhão

1.977

4.231

2.423

383

Mato Grosso

8.951

12.988

8.486

2.502

Pará

3.899

8.265

1.559

3.489

Rondônia

412

643

232

315

Roraima

137

171

99

61

Tocantins

180

522

229

194

Total 

15.987

27.417

13.301

7.508

Data mapping the area of forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon (km ²) 

Source: INPE (2012).

To learn more about DEGRAD visit: http://www.obt.inpe.br/degrad/

Atlantic Forest

The NGO SOS Mata Atlântica, in partnership with INPE, have been monitoring deforestation in the Atlantic Forest biome (2005-2008, 2008-2010 and 2010-2011) by use of satellite images from China-Brazil Earth Resources Satelite (CBERS) and LANDSAT (NASA Program). Deforestation observed for the periods can be seen in the table below.

State

Period (2005 – 2008)

Period (2008 – 2010)

Period (2010 – 2011)

Bahia

24.148

Não avaliado até o momento

4.493

Espírito Santo

573

160

364

Goiânia

733

161

33

Minas Gerais

32.728

12.524

6.339

Mato Grosso Sul

2.215

154

588

Paraná

9.978

2.699

71

Rio de Janeiro

1.039

315

92

Rio Grande do Sul

3.117

1.897

111

Santa Catarina

25.953

2.149

568

São Paulo

2.455

743

216

Total

102.939

20.802

12.875

Deforestation of the Atlantic forest by period and by state (ha). 

Source: SOS Mata Atlântica Foundation, INPE (2009, 2010, 2012).

To learn more about monitoring deforestation in the Atlantic Forest visit: http://www.sosma.org.br

Cerrado

Under the Deforestation Monitoring Programme of the Brazilian Biomes of the Ministry of Environment, the current situation of deforestation in the Cerrado has been mapped (2012), based on the comparison of images from CBERS and LANDSAT. According to this mapping, between 2002 and 2010, the Cerrado or Savannah had its cover removed by 92,710 km ², which is approximately 11,588 km ² deforested annually during this period. The percentage of deforested areas in 2002 was 55.7% and in 2010, rose to 60.2%.

State

Deforested area Area Deforested by year

Maranhão

18.750

2.343,75

Bahia

10.992

1.374,00

Mato Grosso

19.201

2.400,13

Minas Gerais

9.983

1.247,88

Piauí

5.893

736,63

Tocantins

14.479

1.809,88

Mato Grosso do Sul

7.704

963,00

Goiás

11.158

1.394,75

Paraná

3

0,31

Rondônia

9

1,10

São Paulo

914

114,19

Distrito Federal

90

11,25

Total

92.710

11.588,75

Deforestation of the Cerrado (period 2002-2010) (km ²). 

Source: IBAMA (2012).

To learn more about monitoring Cerrado visit: http://siscom.ibama.gov.br/monitorabiomas/cerrado

Pantanal

Under the Deforestation Monitoring Programme of the Brazilian Biomes of the Ministry of Environment, the current situation of deforestation in the Pantanal has been mapped (2012), based on the comparison of images from CBERS and LANDSAT. According to the data of this mapping, between 2002 and 2008, the Pantanal had its cover removed by 4279 km ², which is about 713 km ² deforested annually during this period. The percentage of deforested areas in 2002 was 12.35% and in 2008, rose to 15.18%.

State

Deforested area in this period

Deforested area by year

Mato Grosso

1.584

226

Mato Grosso do Sul

2.883

411

Total

4.279

637

Deforestation of the Pantanal (períod 2002 – 2009) (Km²).

Source: IBAMA (2012).

To learn more about monitoring the Pantanal biome visit: http://siscom.ibama.gov.br/monitorabiomas/pantanal/pantanal.htm

Caatinga

Under the Deforestation Monitoring Programme of the Brazilian Biomes of the Ministry of Environment, the current situation of deforestation in the Caatinga has been mapped (2012), based on the comparison of images from CBERS and LANDSAT. According to the data of this mapping, between 2002 and 2008, the Caatinga reduced in size by 16,576 km ², which is approximate annual deforestation of 2762 km ² during this period. The percentage of deforested areas in 2002 was 44.3% and in 2008, rose to 46.5%.

State

Deforested areas in this period

Deforested area by year

Bahia

5.165

737

Ceará

4.572

653

Piauí

2.994

427

Pernambuco

2.371

338

Rio Grande do Norte

1.240

177

Paraíba

1.104

157

Minas Gerais

374

53

Alagoas

376

53

Sergipe

161

23

Maranhão

129

18

Total

18.486

2.636

Deforestation of Caatinga (períod 2002 – 2008) in Km².

Source: IBAMA (2010).

To learn more about monitoring Caatinga visit: http://siscom.ibama.gov.br/monitorabiomas/caatinga/caatinga.htm

2. Management authorities and environmental managers of forests

The management of the forests of Brazil is a shared responsibility between the three levels of government, federal, state and municipal. Article 83 of law 11.284 issued in March 2006 changed Article 19 of the Forest Code and now read as follows:

“Article 19. Exploitation of forests and succeeding formations, both public and private domain, require prior approval by the competent state agency of the National System for the Environment – SISNAMA as well as the adoption of access, exploitation, reforestation and management techniques which are compatible with the ecosystems that form the tree cover.

§ 1 It is for IBAMA to approve the interpretation of the main body of this Article:

I – in the public forest domain of the Union;
II – in conservation units created by the Union;
III – in projects potentially impactful national or regional environmental, defined by resolution of the National Council of the Environment – CONAMA.

§ 2 The national municipal environmental approval from the main body of this Article:

I – in the public forest domain of the municipality;
II – in conservation units created by the municipality;
III – in cases delegated to him by covenant or other instrument admissible ears, when appropriate, the competent bodies of the Union, the states and the Federal District.

§ 3 In the case of forest restoration projects that include the use of native species should be prioritized. “(NR)

In each level there are different government institutions that operate with different skills in forest management, such as forest policy and legislation, authorizations for the use of forest resources, forest extension, management of public forests for sustainable production, forest conservation, among others. The CONAMA Resolution 379/2006, members of SISNAMA must make publicly available annually information relevant to forest management regarding:

I – institutions responsible for forest management;
II – human resources involved in forest management;
III – budgetary resources provided for and effectively applied to forest management;
IV – Infrastructure and equipment used in forest management, and
V – received support for institutional strengthening of forestry agencies.

The National Forest Management Portal gathers this information for ease of reference by the Brazilian civil society.

Federal Level:

Ministry of Environment

Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources – IBAMA
Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation – ICMbio
Forest Service – SFB

State Level:

Web site addresses: http://www.florestal.gov.br/pngf/component/option,com_dadosdasinstituicoes/Itemid,109/

AC

Environment Institute of Acre

    • Division of Forestry

State Department of Forest

AM

State Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development

    • Institute of Environmental Protection of the Amazon

AP

Institute of Environment and Spatial Planning of the State of Amapá

STATE INSTITUTE OF FOREST AMAPA

BA

Institute of the Environment and Water Resources

EC

Registration and Management of Forestry Extension

State Superintendent of Environment

    • State Superintendent ENVIRONMENT – Forestry Board

    • Management of Registration and Forestry Extension

ES

Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Defense of the Holy Spirit

    • Department of Natural Resources – IDAF

GO

Secretary of State for the Environment and Water Resources

    • Management of Wild Fauna and Flora

Department of Environment and Water Resources of the State of Goiás

MG

State Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development

    • State Forestry Institute

MS

Secretary of State for the Environment, The Planning, Science and Technology

    • Institute of Environment of Mato Grosso do Sul

    • Management of Forest Resources

MT

State Secretariat of Environment of Mato Grosso

    • Superintendent of Forest Management / SEMA-MT

PA

State Secretariat of Environment of Pará

PE

State Agency for Environment

PI

Department of the Environment and Water Resources of Piauí

RJ

Secretary of State for the Environment – Rio de Janeiro

    • State Environmental Institute

RN

Institute of Sustainable Development and Environment of Rio Grande do Norte

RO

    • Coordination of Development and Environmental Faunistic

SE

Secretary of State for the Environment and Water Resources Sergipe

    • State Administration of Environment

TO

Nature Institute of Tocantins

3. Main rules governing the management and use of forests in the country

Conservation of Forests

The conservation of Brazilian forests is established by law, both in private and public properties. In private farms, the Forest Code (Law 12.651/2012) requires maintenance of Permanent Preservation Areas (APP) and Legal Reserve (RL). The public protected areas are divided into indigenous lands and protected areas. with Law 11.284/2006 public forests outside of protected areas are now protected from deforestation.

With regard to the conservation of forests see the links for information about:

National System of Conservation Units

Permanent Conservation Areas

Legal Reserve

Indigenous Lands

4. Some aspect considered relevant to note in forestry in all areas

The Amazon is the main production area of ​​native timber in Brazil. These forests supply the market with high-value hardwoods for architecture and making furniture, but also with low-value wood for construction. Plantation forests of the south and southeast of the country provide the raw materials mainly for the pulp and paper industries, but also inexpensive furniture making and wood construction.

(“Hitting the Target”, 1999; Imazon) The South and Southeast of Brazil has become the largest and most intense consumption of tropical timber in the world: these areas consume more than double what is imported by European Union countries. Of every five cut trees in the Amazon, one is for the market of the state of São Paulo. The lack of reliable data on wood consumption – resulting from various factors, among which is the high rate of illegal extraction – has contributed to concealment of this reality and diverted the attention of those responsible for policy development as well as the entities civil society, both Brazilian and foreign. As a result, the main focus of policy and campaigns have been limited to the portion of the timber for export, which reaches just 14% of the volume extracted in the Amazon. This paper represents the first attempt to characterize the flows of trade and consumption of wood in the Amazon.

(The logging in the Brazilian Amazon: production, income and markets; 2010; Imazon)

In 1998, only 14% of the total volume produced was exported. In 2004, factors such as favorable exchange rates and increased demand for Amazonian timber market in European, North American and Asian increased the proportion of timber exported to 36%. In 2009, however, the share of wood native to the region in the international market decreased to 21% of total production.

The timber market was essentially national in 2009. Approximately 79% of the volume produced of wood were used for the Brazilian market. The State of São Paulo (17%) and the South (15%) were the main consumers of Amazon timber. Another 16% were consumed in own producing states (in 2004 it was 11%).

There was a significant reduction in the consumption of roundwood in the Amazon between 1998 and 2009. In 1998, consumption of logs was 28.3 million cubic meters, then dropped to 24.5 million in 2004 and to 14.2 million cubic meters in 2009. This significant decrease in the consumption of timber can be related to three main causes: the increase in supervision; replacement of tropical timber by competing products, the global economic crisis.

“Over the past three years, the intensification of enforcement actions against deforestation and combat illegal logging (mainly promoted by the Federal Government with the support of OEMAs), seem to have been the main factor in reducing the consumption of wood Amazon says Denys Pereira, research coordinator at Imazon. “It is also likely that the domestic market is gradually replacing the wood products like Amazon (as MDF, laminates and plantation wood floors, for example), especially in construction. domain name owner This is because these materials do not have problems with reliability of supply, quality variation and mainly environmental pressure, the researcher concludes.

This project is financed by the European Union / Este proyecto está financiado por la Unión Europea