General characteristics of Peru’s Forests:

Peru is the third largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina. It has approximately 72 millon hectares of forest, the ninth highest in the world, fourth highest in terms of tropical forest and it contains 13% of the amazon.

According to the Ministry of Environment (2010), the are of forest in the Peruvian amazon basin is 67,98 millions of hectares, while the dry forest found next to the pacific ocean and in the andean valleys occupy approximately 4,02 million hectares (Cordero 2012)[1].

According to the diferent management categories, the types of forest found in Peru are the following (Cordero 2012): i) Forest in protected natural areas (ANP) and other conservation areas (15’902.068,57 ha); ii) Forests in territorial reserves, indigenous communities and other rural communities (14’830.758,56 ha); iii) Timber and Non-timber concessions (8’623.340,58 ha); iv) Permanent production forests available for concessions (12’292.144,18 ha); v) Special Zone: Wetlands in Amazonia (3’150.551,03 ha) y vi) Non categorised areas (17’207.201,97 ha).

Environmental authorities responsible for forest management:

In Peru, the environmental authorities responsible for forest management::

The DGFFS is in charge of the public management of the natural forest resources and of wild fauna within its legal responsibilities as well as being responsible for recommending politics, strategies, rules, plans, programs and national projects related to the sustainable harvesting of forest resources and wild fauna, the genetic resources associated with these, all according to the national environmental legislation and rules over these resources.

  • Regional Governments

In the framework of national decentralisation, MINAG is transfering more of the DGFFS functions to the regional governments. Within the structure of the regional governments, Forest programmes or executive forest directorates have been established. These are responsible for of taking on the funstions of the DGFFS. For those regions that are within the Amazon a process has been initiated to establish Regional Environmental Authorities (ARA is the spanish acronym), these will take on the responsibilities of administration and forest management of their regions.

The regions which have the largest areas of Amazon forest are Loreto, Ucayali, Madre Dios and San Martín.

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MINAM in the enviornment authority responsible for formulating policies relating to the management and conservation of natural resources including valuing both goods and services as well as the development of compensation payments, or PES and activities relating to REDD+. MINAM is the focal point in Peru for the United Nations Climate Change Climate Change Commission (CMNUCC), Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB) and the scientific authority for the CITES convention.

It has specific functions related to administration and management of the National System of state protected natural areas (SINANPE). Among these they are in charge of directing and establishing technical criteria and administration for the conservation of protected areas– ANP,  safeguarding the maintenance of biological diversity, formulate strategies and actions to counteract the threats to ANP, including illegal logging. Meanwhile, in its capacity as the technical-policy authority it carries out its work in coordinating with regional governments, local governments and property owners recognised as private protection areas.

This organisation is reponsible for supervising and financing of sustainable harvesting and conservation of forest resources and wildlife as well as the environmental services generated by forests

Among its primary functions:

  • Supervise and Inspect the production of forest products , verifying the completion of the obligations contained in the concession contracts, permits and authorisations.
  • Exercise disciplinary powers within its remit.
  • Verify the establishment of annual export quota of species contained in the CITES appendices.
  • Supervise the physical inspections that are carried out by the competent authority in order to approve the annual operation plan.
  • Declare the expiry of the rights to harvest contained in the luse rights certificates contained in the authorization issued by the competent authority in cases of breach of the conditions of authorization certificates

Principal rules for forest management

Forest management is controlled by the forest and wildlife law that sets out the framework in order to regulate, promote and supervise the forest and fauna activities in order to promote conservation, protection, increase and sustainable use of the nations forests and wildlife within the national forest.

This law includes in its principles: Forest governance and wildlife, participation in forest governance, legal origin, transparency and accountability, among others. Simultaneously, it has articles relating to illegal logging, legal logging, traceability and trade.

Relevant Aspects:

  • Production of sawn wood in m3 reached 784 020, 63 in 2011.
  • The value of exports is of 166 095 207.74 (Value in US$) in 2011.
  • There is a consultation in place at the moment looking at the national forest policy and in formulation of the national forestry plan and legislation relating to forestry and wildlife.
  • The national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2010 is 392 thousand 565 millions of nuevos soles (US$ 150 thousand 986 million), with a contribution from the forest sector of around 1%.
  • The deforestation rate between 2000 and 2005 was of 147 thousand hectares a year. Between 2005 and 2010, the Peru lost 150 thousand hectares of amazon forest annualy, this figure is increasing[2].
  • According to OSINFOR Perú loses around US$ 220 million due to illegal logging.
  •  Simultaneously, the Institute of the Peruvian Amazon (IIAP) estimates that 70% of forest extraction in the Peruvian forests is illegal.
  • The national forestry chamber estimates that illegal activities generate a loss in taxation of US$ 8,5 millions a year, and the problem will continue to increase if the authorities dont take action to halt deforestation.
  • Peru has approximately 1 000 000 ha of forests managed by native communities and FSC certified forestry concessions, this contributes to some information required by the Due Diligence System (common name of species, country of origin, information relating to the following of the law relating to harvesting of timber species and others)[3].

This project is financed by the European Union / Este proyecto está financiado por la Unión Europea